Contents Ц http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/index.htm


ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа M.I.Petin

аааааа Bibleа -а Calendarа -а Nature


аа The solar Gregorian calendar, which practically functions now as

a World calendar is nevertheless perceived nowadays by most of

our planet population only as Western or Christian calendar.


    The analysis of the history of creation of the Gregorian calendar and

аits lacks shows the influence on the Gregorian calendar of certain subjects

and phenomena.

For example, one can assert that there is the following dependence:


  The Bibleа -а an industrial cycle (work, rest)а -а a calendar Ц

-         Nature (the Sun, the Moon, the Earth).


 ааа In recent times (IVth century CE) the Christian Church (the Bible)

exerted its influence on the calendar: a mythical industrial cycle

(7 day week) was introduced into the calendar, which is still in the calendar

at the present time.


ааа Observed in Nature are the time cycles connected with the seen

movement of the heavenly bodies (the Sun, the Moon, the Earth).

These natural cycles are reflected in a calendar. They are a calendar basis

and are used for counting of long time intervals.

For example, the seen Sun movement defines the seasonal solar

year in a calendar, the Moon movement -а the month (lunation),

the Earth rotationа -а the sutki (day + night).

ааа A mythical 7 day week is absent in Nature.


    A calendar problem, in particular, lies in the fact

that in the 313 year (IVth century CE) the Roman Emperor Constantineа

wrongly introduced a 7 day week into the solar (Julian) calendar

when one had legalized Christian.

Unfortunately, this mistake was not corrected in 1582 by Roman

Pope Gregory XIII and by the author (reformer) Christopher

Clavius, while making the Julian calendar reform.


     The mistake of Emperor Constantine lies in the inequality

between the duration of a CALENDAR month and the average

duration of the NATURAL lunar cycle (29,5305888531 sutki).

     Strictly speaking, the duration of one week should be equal to:


            29,5305888531: 4 = 7,382 Е sutki.


Further, taking into account the idea, that in any calendar there can be

only the integers (fractional numbers should be approximated to

the nearest integers) it is necessary to consider that:

а                I week=7,38ї1=  7,38=а 7 sutki,аааааааааа i.e. 7

         аа I+II week=7,38ї2=14,76=15 sutki,        аа i.e. 7+8 

   аа I+II+III week=7.38x3=22,14=22 sutki,аааааааааа i.e. 7+8+7ааааааааа

I+II+III+IV week=7.38x4=29,52=30 (or 29) sutki, i.e. 7+8+7+8(or 7).


Thus, the next conclusion follows: for conformity of the CALENDAR months

to the NATURAL lunar cycles, the following conditions should be observed:

ааааа -а the calendar months (lunations) should have the structures  -

           7+8+7+8 (30 sutki) and 7+8+7+7 (29 sutki),

ааааааааа grouped in the Meton-cycles known from the ancient times

ааааааааа (before the Julian and Gregorian calendars).


    The Gregorian calendar is rather accurate and widespread

but besides an erroneous 7 day week it has a number of lacks: 

        -    the duration of the months is different (from 28 up to 31 days),

        -    the months of different duration alternate randomly,

-         the quarters of a year have different duration (from 90 to 92 days),

-         the first half-year period is always shorter than the second one

ааааа (three days - in an ordinary year and two days - in a leap year),

        -    the years and months begin with different week days,

-         10 - 11 weeks " are split ", i.e. one part of themа belongs

ааааа to one month, the other part belongs to the other month, 

-         the number of working days in different months of the same

ааааа year is various (23-27 days when a 6 day working week applies

ааааа and 19-23 days whenа a 5 day working week applies),    

-         the dates of months are not coordinated with days of the week

ааааа as well as with the Moon phases,      

-         the calendar is not convenient for women (in a female calendar

ааааа the periods of the womenТs biorhythms are close to the periods

ааааа of lunar cycles),      

-         the non-Christian part of the EarthТs population (5 billion

ааааа persons from 6 billion of the total number of people on

ааааа the Earth) criticizes the Gregorian calendar (see web-siteа -    

ааааааааааа   http://www.icacci.org/english/pages/home.html  ),    

-         the initial date in a calendar is only a myth, a legend, but

ааааа not the fixed astronomical phenomenon.


    How can all these lacks be eliminated?


    A New World ╤alendar should:

-         be a dual calendar, i.e. a solar (seasonal) and a lunar-solar one. 

ааааааааааааа Note. Such official STATE calendars (but with a 7 day week)

аааааааааааа exist now, for example, in Israel, UAE,  Saudi Arabia etc,

-         have structures of months: 7+8+7+8 (30 days) and

ааааа 7+8+7+7 (29 days),

-         have the initial date in a calendar as the astronomical phenomenon

ааааа instead of myths or legends about the birthdays of prophets etc.,

-         be precisely synchronized (an accuracy -/+ 1.5 day)

ааааа in relation to natural solar and natural lunar cycles,

        - ааа be acceptable to any religion,

        -аааа etc.


       For the last 200 years the calendar experts have created a lot of

projects of calendars with a 7 day week. But all of them are like

лthe curve mirrors╗ which are not convenient to use.

       The unique project of a calendar лwith a flat mirror╗

(i.e. 7+8+7+8 and 7+8+7+7) is placed on sites:




        The project of the New World Calendar Ц PETIN-METON Calendar -

has a number of advantages in comparison with the solar Gregorian

or other calendars:

-      it is not required to introduce the "special" dates.

аааааа Dates 15 and 30 of the lunar months are the same  

ааааа  usual integral days of the week, as are all others,

-      the duration of months is unified - 29 and 30 days,

-    а  the structure of months is constant and easily remembered,

-       the lengths of lunar years are reduced from six values

ааааааа up to three: 354, 355, 384 days,

-аааааа the quantity of working days in each month  is constant (24 days

when a 6 day working week applies and 20 days when a 5 day working

week applies),

-  а    the months, quarters of years  and years begin and finish

ааааааа at the same days of a week,

-аааааа the dates of months and weekdays are synchronized withа phases

of the Moon (with the rotation of the Moon around the Earth), which

allows to take into account the workerТs efficiency in production 

connected with the biorhythms, arising under the influence of the Moon,

-аааааа the new calendar is more convenient for women,

аthan the Gregorian Calendar,

-  аа   all calendar cycles:

           - the sutki (day + night),

           - the lunation (lunar month),

           - the solar year,

           - the Meton cycle (19 solar years),

           - the Grand Meton cycle (6479 solar years)а -а

        correspond to the natural rotation periods of heavenly bodies

аааааа (the Sun, the Moon, the  Earth )  relative to each other,

-ааааа each Grand Meton cycle is attached to the precise heavenly

time reference points ofа time (orientirs), i.e. the moments of

the mutual position of the Sun, the Moon, the Earth when 

the Southern solstice, the solar eclipse and midday are

simultaneously observed and when the solar eclipse will be

repeated through the lunation period.

            Such next in turn combination of mutual positions of theа

ааааааа above mentioned heavenly bodies took place on

ааааааа December 20, 1786 with the subsequent repeated solar

ааааааа eclipse on January 19, 1787. See the web-site:

аааааааа http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEcat/SEcatalog.htmlа  .

-ааааа correction of discrepancy of lunar and solar years concerning

ааааааа the calendar structure and also between themselves is simple;

ааааааа it can be carried out by high precision compensating methods.


ааа The PETIN-METON calendar is the answer to

a question on a calendar reform which was raised in 1953

in the United Nations under the initiative of the India delegation,а

аwhich had offered Уto ratify for whole of the world a new, uniform and

аconstant calendar, astronomically coordinated with the movement of

the Earth around the Sun which be more correct, scientifically reasonable

and favourable, as compared with the Gregorian calendarФ. 


 аа The account of lunar months and solar years in theа

PETIN-METON Calendar creates conditions for rapprochement

of religious traditions of Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism etc.,

based on the most ancient observation of the seen movements of

the Sun, the Moon and the Earth.

 а  Being guided by the preservation of an invariance of each

religious doctrine, and also the principles of friendly mutual relations,

one can hope that spiritual academies of different countries will

consider an opportunity of application of the new solar + lunar-solar

calendar in their states as the World calendar.  


  а Expansion of cultural, trading, technical and telecommunication

connections between peoples (especially the rapid development

of the Internet-network in recent years) facilitates the calendar

reform, which is of great international value.


Please, see also:

-         the Calendar 2006а -а http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/phase1.mht а

-         the Calendar 2007а -а http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/2007phase1.mht


а Contents Ц http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/index.htmаа аааааа

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