аааааа Bibleа -а Calendarа -а Nature
аа The solar Gregorian calendar, which practically functions now as
a World calendar is nevertheless perceived nowadays by most of
our planet population only as Western or Christian calendar.
The analysis of the history of creation of the Gregorian calendar and
аits lacks shows the influence on the Gregorian calendar of certain subjects
For example, one can assert that there is the following dependence:
The Bibleа -а an industrial cycle (work, rest)а -а a calendar Ц
- Nature (the Sun, the Moon, the Earth).
ааа In recent times (IVth century CE) the Christian Church (the Bible)
exerted its influence on the calendar: a mythical industrial cycle
(7 day week) was introduced into the calendar, which is still in the calendar
at the present time.
ааа Observed in Nature are the time cycles connected with the seen
movement of the heavenly bodies (the Sun, the Moon, the Earth).
These natural cycles are reflected in a calendar. They are a calendar basis
and are used for counting of long time intervals.
For example, the seen Sun movement defines the seasonal solar
year in a calendar, the Moon movement -а the month (lunation),
the Earth rotationа -а the sutki (day + night).
ааа A mythical 7 day week is absent in Nature.
A calendar problem, in particular, lies in the fact
that in the 313 year (IVth century CE) the Roman Emperor Constantineа
wrongly introduced a 7 day week into the solar (Julian) calendar
when one had legalized Christian.
Unfortunately, this mistake was not corrected in 1582 by Roman
Pope Gregory XIII and by the author (reformer) Christopher
Clavius, while making the Julian calendar reform.
The mistake of Emperor Constantine lies in the inequality
between the duration of a CALENDAR month and the average
duration of the NATURAL lunar cycle (29,5305888531 sutki).
Strictly speaking, the duration of one week should be equal to:
29,5305888531: 4 = 7,382 Е sutki.
Further, taking into account the idea, that in any calendar there can be
only the integers (fractional numbers should be approximated to
the nearest integers) it is necessary to consider that:
а I week=7,38ї1= 7,38=а 7 sutki,аааааааааа i.e. 7
аа I+II week=7,38ї2=14,76=15 sutki, аа i.e. 7+8
аа I+II+III week=7.38x3=22,14=22 sutki,аааааааааа i.e. 7+8+7ааааааааа
I+II+III+IV week=7.38x4=29,52=30 (or 29) sutki, i.e. 7+8+7+8(or 7).
Thus, the next conclusion follows: for conformity of the CALENDAR months
to the NATURAL lunar cycles, the following conditions should be observed:
ааааа -а the calendar months (lunations) should have the structures -
7+8+7+8 (30 sutki) and 7+8+7+7 (29 sutki),
ааааааааа grouped in the Meton-cycles known from the ancient times
ааааааааа (before the Julian and Gregorian calendars).
The Gregorian calendar is rather accurate and widespread
but besides an erroneous 7 day week it has a number of lacks:
- the duration of the months is different (from 28 up to 31 days),
- the months of different duration alternate randomly,
- the quarters of a year have different duration (from 90 to 92 days),
- the first half-year period is always shorter than the second one
ааааа (three days - in an ordinary year and two days - in a leap year),
- the years and months begin with different week days,
- 10 - 11 weeks " are split ", i.e. one part of themа belongs
ааааа to one month, the other part belongs to the other month,
- the number of working days in different months of the same
ааааа year is various (23-27 days when a 6 day working week applies
ааааа and 19-23 days whenа a 5 day working week applies),
- the dates of months are not coordinated with days of the week
ааааа as well as with the Moon phases,
- the calendar is not convenient for women (in a female calendar
ааааа the periods of the womenТs biorhythms are close to the periods
ааааа of lunar cycles),
- the non-Christian part of the EarthТs population (5 billion
ааааа persons from 6 billion of the total number of people on
ааааа the Earth) criticizes the Gregorian calendar (see web-siteа -
ааааааааааа http://www.icacci.org/english/pages/home.html ),
- the initial date in a calendar is only a myth, a legend, but
ааааа not the fixed astronomical phenomenon.
How can all these lacks be eliminated?
- be a dual calendar, i.e. a solar (seasonal) and a lunar-solar one.
ааааааааааааа Note. Such official STATE calendars (but with a 7 day week)
now, for example, in
- have structures of months: 7+8+7+8 (30 days) and
ааааа 7+8+7+7 (29 days),
- have the initial date in a calendar as the astronomical phenomenon
ааааа instead of myths or legends about the birthdays of prophets etc.,
- be precisely synchronized (an accuracy -/+ 1.5 day)
ааааа in relation to natural solar and natural lunar cycles,
- ааа be acceptable to any religion,
For the last 200 years the calendar experts have created a lot of
projects of calendars with a 7 day week. But all of them are like
лthe curve mirrors╗ which are not convenient to use.
The unique project of a calendar лwith a flat mirror╗
(i.e. 7+8+7+8 and 7+8+7+7) is placed on sites:
The project of the New World Calendar Ц PETIN-METON Calendar -
has a number of advantages in comparison with the solar Gregorian
or other calendars:
- it is not required to introduce the "special" dates.
аааааа Dates 15 and 30 of the lunar months are the same
ааааа usual integral days of the week, as are all others,
- the duration of months is unified - 29 and 30 days,
- а the structure of months is constant and easily remembered,
- the lengths of lunar years are reduced from six values
ааааааа up to three: 354, 355, 384 days,
-аааааа the quantity of working days in each month is constant (24 days
when a 6 day working week applies and 20 days when a 5 day working
- а the months, quarters of years and years begin and finish
ааааааа at the same days of a week,
-аааааа the dates of months and weekdays are synchronized withа phases
of the Moon (with the rotation of the Moon around the Earth), which
allows to take into account the workerТs efficiency in production
connected with the biorhythms, arising under the influence of the Moon,
-аааааа the new calendar is more convenient for women,
аthan the Gregorian Calendar,
- аа all calendar cycles:
- the sutki (day + night),
- the lunation (lunar month),
- the solar year,
- the Meton cycle (19 solar years),
- the Grand Meton cycle (6479 solar years)а -а
correspond to the natural rotation periods of heavenly bodies
аааааа (the Sun, the Moon, the Earth ) relative to each other,
-ааааа each Grand Meton cycle is attached to the precise heavenly
time reference points ofа time (orientirs), i.e. the moments of
the mutual position of the Sun, the Moon, the Earth when
the Southern solstice, the solar eclipse and are
simultaneously observed and when the solar eclipse will be
repeated through the lunation period.
Such next in turn combination of mutual positions of theа
ааааааа above mentioned heavenly bodies took place on
ааааааа eclipse on
-ааааа correction of discrepancy of lunar and solar years concerning
ааааааа the calendar structure and also between themselves is simple;
ааааааа it can be carried out by high precision compensating methods.
ааа The PETIN-METON calendar is the answer to
a question on a calendar reform which was raised in 1953
United Nations under the initiative of the
аwhich had offered Уto ratify for whole of the world a new, uniform and
аconstant calendar, astronomically coordinated with the movement of
the Earth around the Sun which be more correct, scientifically reasonable
and favourable, as compared with the Gregorian calendarФ.
аа The account of lunar months and solar years in theа
PETIN-METON Calendar creates conditions for rapprochement
of religious traditions of Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism etc.,
based on the most ancient observation of the seen movements of
the Sun, the Moon and the Earth.
а Being guided by the preservation of an invariance of each
religious doctrine, and also the principles of friendly mutual relations,
one can hope that spiritual academies of different countries will
consider an opportunity of application of the new solar + lunar-solar
calendar in their states as the World calendar.
а Expansion of cultural, trading, technical and telecommunication
connections between peoples (especially the rapid development
of the Internet-network in recent years) facilitates the calendar
reform, which is of great international value.
Please, see also:
- the Calendar 2006а -а http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/phase1.mht а
- the Calendar 2007а -а http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/2007phase1.mht
а Contents Ц http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/index.htmаа аааааа